Located 400km above Earth the Brit ran the course while strapped to a treadmill and was able to see roads pass under his feet in real time on an iPad.
The 44-year-old has set a new record for fastest marathon in orbit, Guinness World Records confirmed after adjudicating Peake’s attempt via live video link at the European Astronaut Centre of ESA in Cologne.
The record for the fastest marathon in orbit by a female is held by Sunita Williams, who ran in a time of four hours and 24 minutes on April 16, 2007.
Not content with running the marathon himself, Peake also had time to launch the countdown for thousands of eager participants waiting to start the route in London.
Peake sent his fellow runners a good luck video message before a 10-second countdown to start the 36th race.
He ran the 26.2-mile course in three hours, 18 minutes and 50 seconds on earth back in 1999.
Back on Earth, the winner of this year’s marathon, Jemima Sumgong, gave a life lesson in perseverance after she recovered from a nasty fall to go on and complete the course in just under two hours and 23 minutes.
Sumgong held her head after a sharp impact with the road when she was tripped by Ethiopian Aselefech Mergia as they approached a water station.
Eliud Kipchoge, also from Kenya, retained the men’s title, running the route just seven seconds short of the world record.